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CIVIL SEMINAR REPORT :GEOTHERMAL PILES

INTRODUCTION The issue of climate change is one of the greatest economic, social, and environmental challenges that the world has been exposed to. Countries, governments and individuals need to find ways of reducing the carbon footprint and one such option is the utilization of alternative, renewable energy sources. With new technologies in the field of the alternative energy sources being ... Read More »

CIVIL SEMINAR REPORT :USE OF GEOGRIDS IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

1.INTRODUCTION Geosynthetics provide significant improvement in pavement construction and performance. Figure 1 illustrates a number of potential geosynthetic applications in a layered pavement system to improve its performance. The reinforcement applications shown in Figure 1 can be provided by geogrids through friction or interlock developed between the aggregate and the geosynthetic. These applications include subgrade stabilization, base reinforcement and asphalt ... Read More »

KERALA MUNICIPALITY BUILDING RULES 1999

KERALA MUNICIPALITY BUILDING RULES 1999 S.R.O. No. 777/99.- In exercise of the powers conferred by sections 381, 382, 387, 398, and 406 read with section 565 of the Kerala Municipality Act, 1994 (20 of 1994) and in super session of the Kerala Building Rules, 1984 issued in G.O. (Ms.) No. 127/84/LA & SW dated 14th May 1984 and published as ... Read More »

Stretching of a steel wire

One of the simplest loading conditions of a material is that of tension, in which the fibres of the material are stretched. Consider, for example, a long steel wire held rigidly at its upper end, Figure 1.1, and loaded by a mass hung from the lower end. If vertical movements of the lower end are observed during loading it will be found that ... Read More »

Basic and important requirements of amazing building

REQUIREMENTS OF A BUILDING

The planning and construction of a building should be aimed at fulfilling the following requirements: 1. Strength and stability 2. Dimensional stability 3. Resistance to dampness 4. Resistance to fire 5. Heat insulation 6. Sound insulation 7. Protection against termite attack 8. Durability 9. Security against burglary 10. Lighting and ventilation 11. Comforts and convenience 12. Economy. 1. Strength and ... Read More »

ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING

ELEMENTS OF A BUILDING

The following are the basic elements of a building: 1. Foundation 2. Plinth 3. Walls and columns 4. Sills, lintels and chejjas 5. Doors and windows 6. Floors 7. Roofs 8. Steps, stairs and lifts 9. Finishing work 10. Building services. The functions of these elements and the main requirement of them is presented in this article. 1. Foundation: Foundation ... Read More »

TESTS ON MORTAR

TESTS ON MORTAR

The following tests are conducted on the prepared mortars to ensure their quality: 1. Crushing Test 2. Tensile Strength Test 3. Adhesive Test. 1. Crushing Test: This test is carried out on a brick work with the mortar. This brick work is crushed in a compression testing machine and the load is noted down. Then the crushing strength is obtained as load ... Read More »

LIME MORTAR

LIME MORTAR

Fat lime and hydraulic limes are used for making lime mortar. If fat lime is used sand mixed is normally 2 to 3 times its volume. If hydraulic lime is used sand mixed is only 2 times the volume of lime. Lime is prepared by pounding, if quantity required is small or by grinding, if the required quantity is more. Pounding: For ... Read More »

Cement mortar for ratio,mix sand proportions

CEMENT MORTAR

For preparing mortar, first a mixture of cement and sand is made thoroughly mixing them in dry condition. Water is gradually added and mixed with shovels. The cement to sand proportion recommended for various works is as shown is Table 2.1 Curing: Cement gains the strength gradually with hydration. Hence it is necessary to see that mortar is wet till ... Read More »

What are the Defects and Preservation in Timber

Defects and Preservation in Timber

Various defects which are likely to occur in timber may be grouped into the following three: (i) Due to natural forces (ii) Due to defective seasoning and conversions. (iii) Due to attack by fungi and insects. (i) Defects due to Natural Forces: The following defects are caused by natural forces: (a) Knots (b) Shakes (c) Wind cracks (d) Upsets (a) ... Read More »